Flight Competition Pt 2.

  1. Description of Scale Operations for Maneuver Combinations
    1. Retracts and extended gear used in Takeoff, Landings, and dirty fly bys. For optimum score, retraction should commence during the takeoff maneuver when the model establishes a positive rate of climb. Retraction speed and sequence should reflect that of the prototype to include sequencing gear doors. Models of aircraft with retractable tail wheels should be downgraded if the tail wheel does not retract. Landing gear should be extended on either the inspection pass or on the downwind leg of the landing sequence.
    2. Flap Operation used in Takeoff, Landings, and dirty fly bys. For optimum score, flaps should be lowered 1/3rd on the base leg of the traffic pattern and to full position on final approach. The contestant may elect not to use flaps for takeoff but must inform the judges before the flight. Otherwise, the judges will expect to see some amount of lowered flaps during takeoff by default and downgrade accordingly. There should be no loss of points if the judges fail to see flap movement during flight but should expect to see them deployed at the specified times. If they are small in size and difficult to observe in a lowered position, the judges may request that they be lowered in a taxi maneuver prior to takeoff or after landing.
    3. Bomb Drop used with evasive maneuver such as zoom climb, or chandelle, etc. Bombs should be carried in the same manner as the prototype. For bombs carried internally, bomb bay doors should open, bombs should drop and then doors should close for maximum score. If bombs are carried externally they should be securely attached with no noticeable oscillation in the slipstream. Unusual bombing techniques may be used if the contestant can verify them with written documentation and cleared with the Contest Director before the flight. With the exception of napalm types, bombs should not tumble end-over-end after release. A contestant is permitted to substitute a different bomb or bombs for the flight other than those used during static judging. For maximum score, the bomb(s) should contact the ground on the judges' centerline or within 3 feet on either side of judges' centerline.
    4. Torpedo Drop used in conjunction with evasive maneuver such as chandelle, zoom climb, etc. This should be performed in level flight and at low altitude to enable the torpedo to strike the ground in a relatively flat attitude. For an externally mounted torpedo, it should be securely attached with no noticeable oscillation in the slipstream. For torpedoes carried internally, torpedo bay doors should open, torpedo should drop and then doors should close for maximum score.
    5. Tank Drop used with a turning maneuver such as 90-degree turn, half-Cuban eight, etc. A fuel tank capable of being jettisoned should be carried in the same manner of the full size prototype. The drop should be performed with the model in level flight and released on the judges' centerline. The tank(s) should be securely attached with no noticeable oscillation in the slipstream.
    6. Parachute Drop used with a turning maneuver such as a procedure turn. A parachute drop or ejection should be performed in the scalelike manner of the full size prototype. Cargo should be dropped via doors, hatch, bomb bay, or from wing hardpoints. A man or men should be dropped via doors, hatch (if the aircraft was so equipped), or by inverting the model if this was the prototypical method of egress. A single seat aircraft must not drop its pilot. A braking parachute may be deployed on landing if this was a feature of the prototype.
    7. Agricultural Spraying or Dusting used with an evasive climb-out such as a zoom climb or chandelle. The contestant should be prepared to document that the prototype aircraft was used for this purpose. Since the manner in which this operation was performed by full scale aircraft may differ according to aircraft type and/or crop being dusted, the contestant should describe to the judges before the flight, his intended presentation. Generally the aircraft will make a low pass down the maneuvering line and visibly perform its spraying or dusting mission on command by the contestant. An emergency dump of the hopper contents may be performed and may be accompanied by a rapid climb to simulate avoidance of an obstacle. The maneuver should be performed with wings level during the dusting sequence.
    8. Other Optional Demonstrations may be performed by a contestant provided the maneuver combination is typical of the full size prototype. Maneuver combination must be cleared beforehand by the Contest Director and explained to the Flight Judges before the flight.


The contestant must perform 5 mandatory maneuvers and 5 optional maneuvers. They can be presented in any order except Flight Realism, which will be scored at the end of the flight.

1. Take Off  (Click to see graphically)

What Judges Are To Inspect For:

? Straight and down the centerline roll out (see exception for "tail skid" aircraft).

? Gentle lift off, wings level, tracking straight

? Observe mechanical operations, i.e. retracts, gear door sequencing, flaps (Overall Flight Realism)

? Gentle climb out, tracking straight, wings level, to 30 feet altitude

1.1. The takeoff maneuver shall be scored after heading position is initially established near the centerline of the active runway with a brief hesitation. (Exception: When safely possible, tail skid aircraft can establish a heading more into the wind so the judges need to establish an imaginary centerline based on the initial path started at takeoff). This new established heading shall not be directed toward the judges or deadline. A full stop may be made, but is not required. The contestant must announce that "takeoff maneuver is starting now" prior to starting the takeoff roll. For optimum scoring, the roll must be parallel and in close proximity to centerline of the runway. The roll distance and tracking prior to liftoff should be realistic to that scale distance modeled of the full size aircraft (runway permitting). During climb out, the wings should remain reasonably level with original heading maintained. The take-off optimum heading and prototypical ascent angle should be maintained to an elevation of at least 30 feet to complete the maneuver prior to making the initial turn away from the flight line. If the aircraft prototypical design has retractable gear, they should be initiated in operation cycle sufficiently soon after lift off to allow completion (or near completion) of that cycle prior to initial turn away from the flight line for optimum "Continuity" score in Overall Flight Realism. If they fail to retract thereafter in flight, a severe downgrade will apply to Overall Flight Realism "Options" and "Continuity". Flaps and slats (if applicable) may be used during the takeoff maneuver, but are not required for most available runway lengths. Retracts, flaps or slats shall not dilute any of the scoring contents for pilot Precision, Placement, and Realism in takeoff.

2. Figure Eight  (Click to see graphically)

What Judges Are To Inspect For:

? Maneuver called at 45 degrees from Judges Centerline (left or right of judges)

? Bank angle typical of full size aircraft at speed

? Crossover point on Judges Centerline (directly in front of Judges)

? Crossover point at same altitude

? Symmetry same, left circle same size/diameter as right circle

? Exit altitude same as entry altitude

2.1. The mandatory figure eight will be centered in front of the judges as described in the AMA rules. Perhaps more than any other maneuver, it best reveals how well the pilot can position and control the aircraft with a prototypical attitude and Precision over a large horizontal area in various conditions. The prototypical bank angle used during the figure eight is anticipated to vary in windy conditions to maintain a figure eight pattern with respect to the ground and judges.

3. Straight Fly Past  (Click to see graphically)

What Judges Are To Inspect For:

? Direction is same as take off (into the wind)

? Altitude between 10 and 20 feet

? Heading is straight and tracks down the maneuvering line

? Maintains constant altitude

? Equal distance on Judges Centerline, 150 feet to left and 150 feet to right

3.1. The mandatory 10 to 20 foot elevation fly-past will be centered in front of the judges and located parallel to the "defined runway" width. Direction will be the same as designated takeoff unless otherwise specified by the CD. Downgrading will also start occurring if the maneuver is too far out beyond 100 feet from the far side of the runway, or in closer than the far side of the defined runway edge as optimally described for various aircraft described in Placement scoring content of maneuvers. Elevation and horizontal Placement of this literally "straight-forward" maneuver is therefore essential for maximum points. Downgrading is proportional to severity of poor Placement or the inability to maintain a straight and level flight within the desired elevation of 10 to 20 feet for at least 300 feet (not 5 seconds as AMA describes). This maneuver determines how well the contestant can position and fly the aircraft accordingly. Allowances shall be made for slower lightweight vintage types of aircraft for slight corrections in gusty wind conditions. No scale operations shall dilute the scoring content expected for piloting Precision, Placement or Realism in this mandatory Fly-Past maneuver.

4. Approach And Landing (Click to see graphically)

What Judges Are To Inspect For:

? Pilot calls maneuver when turning to final

? Observe mechanical operations, i.e., slats, retracts, full flaps on final (Overall Flight Realism)

? Wings level, gentle glide angle, tracks on runway centerline

? Smooth flare, gentle contact with ground, minimal porposing

? Straight roll out down runway centerline (see exception for "tail skid" aircraft).

? Slows to taxi speed before turning

4.1. The landing maneuver will be scored from the time the aircraft enters the final approach to landing, or at the end of an optional Traffic Pattern or Side Slip approach preceding it. In these latter cases, it will start as the model begins to flare. Immediate judging considerations will include optimum alignment to "center line" of the runway and constant rate of descent and flare to touchdown. The optimum point of landing touchdown shall be determined by runway length to permit the necessary safe roll out of the type of aircraft flown. Therefore positioning for touchdown in front of the judges is not required unless selecting the option of "Spot landing" listed separately herein.

4.2. For optimum scoring of any landing, the roll out must be parallel and in close proximity to the centerline of the runway. Tail skid aircraft are anticipated to experience visible corrections for crosswinds. Slower vintages such as WW-1 are also permitted a flare and touchdown that may be directed more into the wind after an aligned approach with the runway if their speed and momentum in roll out do not produce a safety hazard or deadline infraction". All other Placement criteria apply. Bounces or deviations in described optimum roll out alignment will be downgraded depending on severity of applicable skill contents. Uncontrolled premature turns will similarly be downgraded, and nose-overs will be severely downgraded, or lesser amount if "vintage prototypical". Complete nose-overs onto the back will score zero for skill (Precision) and Realism content features (Placement may still be scored). A touchdown or roll out into any area outside of the defined runway will only be downgraded depending on severity on all skill contents, or scored entirely zero for the maneuver on a dead line infraction. Such downgrades will not be given for short runway facilities where roll out carries the aircraft beyond the end of the runway and touchdown and roll out commenced in the first half of the runway. If the aircraft touches down in the latter half of the available runway and then rolls off the defined runway, all applicable contents will be downgraded accordingly. As stated in "Maneuver Scoring Content", skill-related Precision and Placement may be combined in scoring emphasis for this Placement-critical maneuver. The judging of roll out and overall landing maneuver is not complete until the aircraft has sufficiently slowed to permit a safe controlled taxi from the active portion of the runway.

4.3. Scale operational features affecting landing can be complex in many example aircraft (for past as well as present scoring methods). Some of them have already been described as part of Overall Flight Realism, but others may be new. These judging considerations are as follows:

4.3.1. If flaps, slats, and/or retracts are prototypical features of the aircraft, they must be properly deployed prior to landing for optimum "Overall Flight Realism" qualities.

4.3.2. Flaps, slats, and retracts will not dilute the scoring content expected for landing. Wheel brakes may be used within or after the landing maneuver, but will also be primarily judged in "Overall Flight Realism" or the optional "Taxi with brakes" maneuver combination for optimum judging.

4.4. If a landing gear failure occurs due to inadequate pilot Precision or Realism in "flare", the landing will be downgraded accordingly. If a "belly landing" is performed skillfully with a smooth touchdown and accurate Placement after a gear malfunction during or prior to deployment, the landing may still be scored "optimally" in all of its content features, but not in Overall Flight Realism. As described previously, the scale operation "Option Precision" or "Continuity" content for gear, flaps, and slats is in Overall Flight Realism and are not a content element to the landing maneuver. (NOTE: Calling an emergency landing will help alert the judges to score the landing accordingly, but it will not save optimum points for Overall Flight Realism score.)

4.5. Scale operation of a drogue chute (or chutes) deployed in a timely and realistic manner during the landing roll out shall be scored as a "maneuver combination". This maneuver combination of "landing with drogue chute" will partially dilute Precision content in piloting skill with an accompanying scale operation feature described in "Maneuver Scoring Content".

4.6. Inclusion of a drogue chute (or chutes) for optimizing Overall Flight Realism "Options" in the landing maneuver will be dictated by prototypical roll out and the "scale-length runway" facilities available. No downgrade in score will occur for not selecting the drogue chute option, if well placed landings can be executed on longer runway facilities. The incentive for the use of drogue chute(s) in modeling will therefore be the same as that in full scale.

5. Realism

What Judges Are To Inspect For:

? Model performs smooth transitions through each axis roll, pitch, and yaw, consistently throughout the entire flight (including in between maneuvers)

? Bank angles consistent with full size aircraft

? G-loading consistent with full size aircraft

? Management of power appropriate with performed maneuvers

? Chosen maneuvers consistent with full size aircraft's capabilities

The Overall Flight Realism score will be an objective summary in answering three fundamental questions with accompanying descriptions as outlined in the following:

5.1. Continuity of Flight (2.5 pts.): Has the pilot demonstrated they can perform with realistic continuity, from the moment the "show starts" as the aircraft taxis out to the time it taxis back?

5.1.1. This shall primarily include how well the aircraft maintains a general realistic appearance on the ground and in the air before, between, or after selected maneuvers. Continuity includes taxi, airborne turnarounds, altitude, smoothness or stability; etc. except when such features are included in defined listed options such as Taxi, Traffic Pattern, Procedure Turn, etc. It also includes takeoff and landing if not listed as part of scored options as ruled by the CD. When any maneuver option listed for score is started, the applicable deduction(s) will apply to that specific maneuver-realism content and not the Overall Flight Realism "continuity". (NOTE: Any poor Realism achieved from flaps, slats, or retracts due to poor timing of use will be deducted in Overall Flight Realism for poor continuity, except when used for the optional scored "maneuver combination" of Slow Speed Inspection Pass.)

5.1.2. Trim passes are permitted without deduction to continuity.

5.1.3. Taxi If the aircraft design and vintage permits, it should taxi to and from the runway under its own power for optimum consideration in scoring the basic continuity to overall Flight Realism. Exceptions will be granted for aircraft with conventional gear and tail skids or float planes with removable "dollies" as described in AMA rules (AMA Guide, rule 5.5.d, page 139), if they remain under power from time of initial transport to the runway through the final transport back.

5.1.4. Taxi anomalies to and from the runway due to excessive wind are also accepted without deduction to the continuity portion of Realism. These may include manually correcting or carrying the aircraft to or from the runway after such wind conditions have become evident to the flight judges or have been announced by the CD. If wind is not a factor for skipping or avoiding an unassisted taxi for applicable aircraft or, if any aircraft requires an engine restart after initially departing the immediate judging area, then a 0.5 point deduction applies to flight Realism for the departure and again for a repeat occurrence after landing and return. The clock will not be extended for engine restarts. See "Time Limit and Official Delays" for exceptions caused by traffic.


5.2. Options Selected or Demonstrated (5.0 pts.): Have the notable prototypical characteristic features of the aircraft been well selected and demonstrated for its intended design mission by choice in Flight Maneuvers and complimenting Scale Operations?

5.2.1. The applicable scale operations of Retractable Gear, Flaps, and Slats shall primarily be inspected in flight for demonstrating mechanical Precision in form-fit-function of operation. This also includes the prototypical gear retraction, secured stowage qualities, and realistic mechanical deployment prior to entering the defined landing maneuver. If there is question of these qualities in flight that prevents accurate scoring, Judge(s) may also request to see these features demonstrated on the ground after the flight. This may also include inspection of other basic control features of the full size to assure they are operable such as ailerons, elevator and rudder when such prototypical features are also in question.

5.2.2. If a model does not have the notable characteristic design features of the full-size (such as retracts or flaps) or, if they fail to operate when required in realistic flight, a corresponding downgrade will be made to the Overall Flight Realism Options such as a 4 to 5 point deduction.

5.2.3. If flaps, slats, and retracts are used with the Slow Speed Inspection Pass, this maneuver shall also be scored for Precision for these scale operational content features per "maneuver combinations".

5.2.4. For Flight Maneuvers, the contestant will need to be cautious in selecting high performance maneuvers that may be uncharacteristic of a non-aerobatic or limited aerobatic aircraft. Maneuvers that were not recognized as prototypical to the full size aircraft will also negatively affect the "Overall Flight Realism" score. In effect, such flagrant violations for Realism will have a double jeopardy associated with them.

5.2.5. In contrast to 5.2.4, selecting specific AMA defined simplified maneuvers (see Section III, 3.3) when performed with aircraft capable of aerobatic or limited aerobatic maneuvers will be counterproductive ONLY to the Overall Flight Realism score for Options. Maneuvers classified by the AMA "just for non-aerobatic" aircraft will be judged for all maneuver contents without downgrade. However, the Overall Flight Realism score will be penalized with a further deduction of 1.0 point each if either of these two maneuvers is optionally selected for other than a non-aerobatic aircraft. (So, contestants beware! Select your flight options wisely to best reflect those prototypical of your aircraft and its designed mission. Also see "Other Non-redundant Flight Options".)

5.2.6. Aircraft entrees that are indeed rated non-aerobatic must be declared as such by the contestant during the preliminary briefing of the judges prior to each flight. Similar to FAA practices, the U.S. Scale Masters considers an airplane non-aerobatic when it is rated not to exceed 60 degree in bank angle and 30 degree in pitch angle.


5.3. Power Management (2.5 pts.): Has skill in throttle and power management been demonstrated? Power variations are anticipated to fly an aircraft at moderate speeds in interim flight for turnarounds compared to other fast or slow speeds applicable to the maneuvers performed. Consider that many early vintage (WW1) aircraft were not throttleable in the conventional sense. Also determine if an idle control (for all prototypical engine arrangements) is adequate to permit a realistic, safe taxi and landing.

      1. Aerobatic aircraft should adequately reflect power capability in engine selection, particularly when vertical maneuver options are performed. Scoring of throttle management skill should be included in Overall Flight Realism. The AMA listed 85
      2. Error of not flying at "Scale-like speed" for flight Realism is defined within this Guide in the Definitions section.

Overall Flight Realism Summary A quick summary for judging or "policing" Overall Flight Realism can perhaps be remembered best as COP. Continuity, Options, and Power management! Scoring will be 2.5, 5.0, and 2.5 points respectively with Options having the greatest emphasis for potential deficiencies. Also see "Flight Realism and Score Sheet Review" in this Guide.

Flight Comp 3